Wednesday, November 29, 2006

Economy of Kerala

Since its amalgamation as a state, Kerala's financial system largely operated under welfare-based democratic communist principles; nevertheless, the state is increasingly along with the rest of India liberalizing its economy, thus moving to a more mixed market with a greater role played by the free marketplace and foreign direct investment. Kerala's supposed gross domestic product is an estimated 89451.99 crore INR, while recent GDP growth has been vigorous compared to historical averages.

Nevertheless, relatively few major corporations and developed plants choose to operate in Kerala; this is mitigated by remittances sent home by abroad Keralites, which contributes around 20% of state GDP. Kerala's per capita GDP 11,819 INR is significantly senior than the all-India average, even though it still lies far below the world average. Additionally, Kerala's Human Development Index and normal of living statistics are the nation's best.

Sunday, November 26, 2006


The basic parts of a tree are the roots, trunk, branches, twigs and leaves. Tree stems consist mainly of carry and transport tissues. Wood consists of xylem cells, and woof is made of phloem and other tissues outside to the vascular cambium.

Trees may be generally grouped into exogenous and endogenous trees according to the way in which their stem diameter increases. Exogenous trees, which include the great bulk of contemporary trees, grow by the addition of new wood outwards, right away under the bark. Endogenous trees, mostly in the monocotyledons, grow by addition of new material inwards.

As an exogenous tree grows, it creates growth rings. In temperate climates, these are usually visible due to changes in the rate of growth with heat variation over a yearly cycle. These rings can be counted to conclude the age of the tree, and used to date cores or even timber taken from trees in the past; this perform is known as the science of dendrochronology. In some humid regions with constant year-round weather, growth is continuous and different rings are not formed, so age resolve is impossible. Age willpower is also impossible in endogenous plants.

Wednesday, November 22, 2006

Synthetic rubber

Another plastic that was critical to the war attempt was "synthetic rubber", which was produced in a range of forms.The first synthetic rubber polymer was obtained by Lebedev in 1910. Practical imitation rubber grew out of studies published in 1930 written separately by American Wallace Carothers, Russian scientist Lebedev and the German scientist Hermann Staudinger. These studies led in 1931 to one of the first winning synthetic rubbers, known as "neoprene", which was residential at DuPont under the direction of E.K. Bolton. Neoprene is highly unwilling to heat and chemicals such as oil and gasoline, and is used in fuel hoses and as an insulating material in machinery.

Worldwide natural rubber goods were limited and by mid-1942 most of the rubber-producing regions were under Japanese control. Military trucks wanted rubber for tires, and rubber was used in almost every other war machine. The U.S. government launched a major effort to expand and refine synthetic rubber. A principal scientist concerned with the effort was Edward Robbins.

Sunday, November 19, 2006

Volcanic activity

aoA trendy way of classifying magmatic volcanoes goes by their occurrence of eruption, with those that erupt regularly called active, those that have erupted in historical times but are now quiet called latent, and those that have not erupted in historical times called extinct. However, these popular classifications vanished in particular are practically meaningless to scientists. They use classifications which refer to a particular volcano's formative and eruptive processes and ensuing shapes, which was explained above.
There is no actual consensus among volcanologists on how to define an "active" volcano. The natural life of a volcano can vary from months to several million years, making such a distinction sometimes worthless when compared to the life spans of humans or even civilizations. For example, many of Earth's volcanoes have erupted dozens of times in the past few thousand years but are not at present showing signs of eruption. Given the long lifespan of such volcanoes, they are very vigorous. By our life spans, however, they are not. Complicating the definition are volcanoes that become restless but do not actually erupt.

Friday, November 10, 2006

Architectural history

Architecture first evolves out of the dynamics between needs and means. Prehistoric and primordial construction. As human’s progress and knowledge began to be formalized through oral traditions and practices, architecture evolved into a craft. Here there is first a process of trial and error, and later making do or duplication of a victorious trial.
Early human settlements were essentially rural. As surplus of production began to occur, rural societies malformed into urban ones and cities begin to evolve. In much ancient civilization such as the Egyptians' and Mesopotamians' architecture and urbanism reflected the constant appointment with the divine and the mystical, while in other ancient cultures such as Iran architecture and urban preparation was used to exemplify the command of the state.
Islamic construction has a long and complex history beginning in the seventh century CE. Examples can be found throughout the countries that are, or were, Islamic - from Morocco and Spain to Turkey other examples can be found in areas where Muslims are a underground. Islamic architecture includes mosques, madras as, caravanserais, palaces, and mausoleum of this large district.

Thursday, November 09, 2006


Jewellery is factually any piece of fine material used to decorate oneself. Although in earlier times jewellery was created for more convenient uses, such as wealth storage and pinning clothes together, in recent times it has been used almost completely for beautification. The first pieces of jewellery were made from likely materials, such as bone and animal teeth, shell, wood and engraved stone. Jewellery was often made for people of high importance to show their status and, in many cases, they were covered with it.Jewellery is made out of almost every material recognized and has been made to garnish nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings and many more types of jewellery. While high-quality and artistic pieces are made with gemstones and valuable metals, less pricey costume jewellery is made from less-valuable materials and is mass-produced.Form and function Kenyan man exhausting tribal beads.Over time, jewellery has been used for a number of reasons: Currency, wealth display and storage, purposeful Symbolism Protection and Artistic display Most cultures have at some point had a practice of observance large amounts of wealth stored in the form of jewellery. Numerous cultures move wedding dowries in the form of jewelry, or create jewelry as a means to store or display coins. on the other hand, jewellery has been used as a currency or trade good; a mostly poignant example being the use of slave beads.
In creating jewellery, a variety of gemstones, coins, or other valuable items can be used, often set into precious metals. Common expensive metals used for modern jewellery include gold, platinum or silver, although alloys of nearly every metal known can be encountered in jewellery -- bronze, for example, was common in Roman times. Most gold jewellery is made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is affirmed in karats, indicated by a number followed by the letter K. For example, ordinary gold jewellery ranges from 10K (41.7% pure gold) to 22K (91.6% pure gold), while 24K (99.9% pure gold) is considered too soft for jewellery use. Platinum alloys variety from 900 (90% pure) to 950 (95.0% pure). The silver used in jewellery is usually sterling silver, or 92.5% fine silver.Other generally used materials include glass, such as merged glass or enamel; wood, often carved or turned; shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory; natural clay, polymer clay, and even plastics.
Jewellery and society
One universal issue is control over who could wear what jewellery, a point which indicate the powerful symbolism the wearing of jewellery evoked. In ancient Rome, for instance, only convinced ranks could wear rings; later, sumptuary laws dictated who could wear what type of jewellery; again based on rank. Cultural dictate have also played a important role; for example, the wearing of earrings by Western men was considered "effeminate" in the 19th and early 20th centuries. on the other hand, the jewellery industry in the early 20th century launched a crusade to popularize wedding rings for men — which caught on — as well as appointment rings for men , going so far as to make a false history and claim that the practice had Medieval roots. By the mid 1940s, 85% of weddings in the U.S. feature a double-ring ceremony, up from 15% in the 1920s.Religion has also played a role: Islam, for instance, consider the wearing of gold by men as a social taboo,and many religions have edicts against extreme display.

Tuesday, November 07, 2006

Flower evolution

While land plants have exist for about 425 million years, the first ones reproduced by a simple variation of their aquatic counterpart; spores. In the sea, plants and some animals can simply scatter out little living copies of themselves to float left and grow elsewhere. This is how early plants, such as the modern fern, are thought to have reproduced. But plants soon began protecting these copies to deal with ventilation out and other abuse which is even more possible on land than in the sea. The protection became the seed...but not, yet, flowers. Early seed-bearing plants include the ginkgo, conifers and fir trees. But the first fossil proof of actual flowers appears only 130 million years ago.
Unfortunately, there is no fossil evidence of exactly how flowers evolved; the confirmation has them springing in advanced form into the fossil record. This was recognized almost immediately during the development of progress theory, the strange appearance of flowers in the fossil record being called by Charles Darwin the Abominable Mystery.

Saturday, November 04, 2006


A spear is an ancient weapon used for hunting and war, consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a sharpened head. The head may be simply the sharpened end of the shaft itself, as is the case with bamboo spears, or it may be of another material fastened to the shaft. The most common design is of a metal spearhead, shaped somewhat like a dagger.
Spears were arguably one of the most common personal weapons from the late Bronze Age until the advent of firearms. They may be seen as the ancestor of such weapons as the lance, the halberd, the naginata and the pike. One of the earliest weapons fashioned by human beings and their ancestors, it is still used for hunting and fishing, and its influences can still be seen in contemporary military arsenals as the rifle mounted bayonet.
Spears can be used as both melee and ballistic weapons. Spears used primarily for thrusting tend to have heavier and sturdier designs than those intended exclusively for throwing. Two of the most noted throwing spears are the javelin thrown by the ancient Greeks and the pilum used by the Romans.

Thursday, November 02, 2006


Infrared (IR) emission is electromagnetic emission of a wavelength longer than that of noticeable light, but shorter than that of radio waves. The name means "below red" (from the Latin infra, "below"), red being the color of detectable light of longest wavelength. Infrared radiation spans three instructions of magnitude and has wavelengths between about 750 nm and 1 mm.
These divisions are suitable by the different human response to this radiation: near infrared is the area closest in wavelength to the radiation detectable by the human eye, mid and far infrared are gradually further from the visible regime. Other definitions follow different physical mechanisms (emission peaks, vs. bands, water absorption) and the newest follow technical reasons (The common silicon detectors are sensitive to about 1,050 nm, while Inga As sensitivity starts around 950 nm and ends between 1,700 and 2,600 nm, depending on the specific configuration). Unfortunately the international standards for these specifications are not currently obtainable.
The boundary between visible and infrared light is not precisely defined. The human eye is markedly less responsive to light above 700 nm wavelength, so longer frequencies make irrelevant contributions to scenes illuminated by common light sources. But particularly strong light (e.g., from lasers, or from bright daylight with the visible light removed by colored gels [1]) can be detected up to approximately 780 nm, and will be apparent as red light. The onset of infrared is defined (according to different standards) at different values typically between 700 nm and 780 nm.