Wednesday, December 19, 2007

Football (soccer)

Association football, commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players, and it is the most fashionable sport in the world. It is a ball game played on a rectangular grass or artificial turf field, with a goal at each of the short ends. The purpose of the game is to score by manoeuvring the ball into the opposing goal. In general play, the goalkeeper is the only player permitted to use their hands or arms to propel the ball; the rest of the team usually use their feet to kick the ball into position, occasionally using their torso or head to intercept a ball in mid air. The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time and/or a penalty shootout, depending on the format of the competition.
The modern game was codified in England following the formation of The Football Association, whose 1863 Laws of the Game created the foundations for the way the sport is played today. Football is governed internationally by the Federation Internationale de Football Association (International Federation of Association Football), commonly known by the acronym FIFA. The most prestigious international football competition is the World Cup, held every four years. This event, the most widely viewed in the world, boasts an audience twice that of the Summer Olympics.

Friday, December 14, 2007

Uses of Ginger

There are array of uses suggested for ginger. A tea brewed from the is a folk medicine for colds. Ginger ale and ginger beer have been suggested as "stomach settlers" for generation in countries where the beverages are made and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the US. Ginger has also been historically used to take care of inflammation which some scientific studies support, though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen. Research on rats suggests that ginger may be valuable for treating diabetes.

Thursday, December 06, 2007

Cricket in India

without doubt the first sport that comes to mind when one thinks of Indian sports today is cricket. Brought to India by her British colonisers, cricket so captured the nation’s thoughts that observers are more or less agreed that today it is the one religion that unites India.
In cities like Calcutta, with everybody glued to their TV sets, life grinds to a stop the progress of the days the Indian team is playing. One-day gear and test matches stimulate equal eagerness; for together, if the match is being played on Indian earth, which by the way supports spin slightly than pace, you’ll get aptitude crowds and a emotional atmosphere seldom matched anywhere outside the subcontinent. Allegations of murky match fixing and a fixed string of matches where the team managed to “grab defeat from the jaws of victory” notwithstanding, the attractiveness of the game continues to rise. Such is the strength of participation with the game that it even affects India’s international relationships. In the result of the 1999 Kargil war, India unilaterally overhanging cricketing relations with Pakistan. The discuss on whether politics and sports should mix enlivens many a discussion, and is yet unresolved.

Wednesday, November 28, 2007

Abraham Lincoln

The brave man of the familiar People. It had been an extended time coming. Terribly separated by the issue of slavery, thirty-one million American citizens were in 1860
Called upon to vote for 16th President of the United States. The Democratic Party meets at its National Party Convention in Charleston, South Carolina, in order to choose their candidate in favor of the presidency. Split over slavery, each section, Northern Democrats on the one hand and Southern Democrats on the other, presented its own conflicting proposal for the party platform.
In February 1860, Senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi claimed that neither the Congress of the United States nor the territorial parliaments had the control to handle slavery.

Tuesday, November 20, 2007

The Banyan Tree

In India the Banyan Tree is consider as National tree. This huge tree overlooks over its neighbors and has the widest reaching roots of all known trees, easily covering several acres. It sends off new shoots from its roots, so that one tree is really a interweave of branches, roots, and trunks. The banyan tree restart and lives for an incredible length of time--thus it is thought of as the everlasting tree.

Its size and leafy shelter are valued in India as a place of relax and mirror image, not to mention defense from the hot sun! It is still the focus and gathering place for local councils and meetings. India has a long history of worship this tree; it figures importantly in many of the oldest stories of the nation.

Tuesday, November 13, 2007

With a hazardous brand of humor that has brought him legions of dedicated fans, Sandler's hit as an actor, stand-up comic, writer and producer is matched by his performance and songwriting skills. It is an shocking gift for lyric and melody that is front and center on Adam Sandler's very funny new Warner Bros. Records release What is Your surname featuring 14 new Sandler originals include such classics as The Goat Song, the Lonesome Kicker, Bad Boyfriend and Corduroy Blues.
What is Your Name continues the musical tradition Sandler began with at a standard Pace, Ode to My Carnd the extremely popular The Chanukah Song. With two platinum-selling, Grammy-nominated albums - They're All Gonna Laugh at you and What the Hell Happened to Me - Already to his credit, Sandler goes for a comedy-three peat with what’s Your Name. The move to an all-music format is a normal one, following his 21 city tour last summer, when he perform both creative material and his favorite childhood tunes, backed by a finest rock and roll band.

Wednesday, October 24, 2007

A Team Player

The superiority of being a team player is one that everyone should enjoy. A team player is someone with good qualities who makes contributions and has the force to motivate each one around him or her. This individuality can be used in many areas such as games, family life, and in the company. You are more expected to be hired in the production if you have and demonstrate the qualities of a team player. As the business climate gets tougher before it gets improved, it is time to hike the talk if you want to develop.

Managers will require all the cooperation they can get. To land a high paying job with a major business you need to be a team player. Having good qualities is one of the most significant characters you can have. Being a team performer thinks of the team as a whole and is not selfish in their views and decisions.

Tuesday, October 16, 2007

Economics is the learning of making choices. High school and college students all over required to take economic courses in order to achieve a diploma. Why is economics so important because it provides a guide for students for real-world situations Economics is divided into two types microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics is the study of economics at a slim level. For example absorbed on how a detailed business functions is microeconomics.
Studying the world economy is classified as Macroeconomics; its center on a much broader level. All students must understand the concept of insufficiency. Scarcity is a condition that occurs because society has unlimited wants and needs however the amount of property is limited. Unlimited wants and needs are what encourage us to create goods and services. We are never satisfied therefore we always have a want or need. On the other hand our income is limited.

Tuesday, October 09, 2007

A simple Girl

Around and around it soared in brutal circles, tearing from side to side her animated temples. At a standstill, they did not do anything. Still, they simply laid there with faces of chalk, invalid of all human emotions. She could not look at them in hopes of relieve, for long. The cherry rivers that flowed across her eyes, streamed down her steaming cheeks, made vision impossible.
Life was simply the stack of decayed flesh that enclosed her. From his immortal lips hung the bodies of all those who died struggle for him and all those who had tampered with self luxury. For that, she dammed him for all eternity; in every form he understood she dammed him. He had been her guiding angle and now it became evident to her. No prayer would pass her conditions lips, for this had been his movement she had fought and they had lost other than just a clash.

Tuesday, September 25, 2007

A Civil Role Model

The word civil carries a lot of power. The usage needs to be carefully considered when it's entered into a sentence or an expression. Civil means a wide difference of things. It can be defined as a way to be attentive of the forms required for good reproduction. It can also be a means to the needs and affairs of the common public. However, the latter of the two definitions can also be extended to include a definition of the private rights and the remedy sought by action or costume. The point is that the word civil has a greater significance that has been embraced by our American legal traditions. It is the premise that law is there to provide the people and the lawyers are nothing more than mere guardians of law.

These are thoughts that were measured during the class viewing of A Civil Action. In the events of the case, there were many concerns that were brought up about our permissible culture.

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

A cold winter morning

I am lying on a white, sandy beach with the glowing sun beating down directly on my tanned summer body. I notice the beautiful, Puerto Rican Cabana boy heading over to replenish my newly empty Margarita glass. I look around my private beach and at the crystal clear, sparkling ocean water tempting me warmly in to its open arms. I get up from my bed on the sand, walking gradually to the water. The sand is flaming my bare feet with such passion that I speed my walk up almost into a jog. As I reach the waterfront I stop, as a falling wave is heading toward my glazing body; I step closer to be in its direct path. I move smoothly in with such grace; I prepare myself for the cool, refreshing bath. I hear an alarm bell screaming, I look around in a panic as it is hurting my ears and giving me a powerful headache. My beach is wandering away, and then it is gone. The ‘warmness my body feels is gone.
I open my eyes; I am gloomy, lifeless room. My alarm clock is going off and the sound can only be compared with exhausted your fingernails across a chalkboard.

Friday, September 14, 2007

A Business Plan

The following production plan has been formulated to obtain $200,000 in capital to launch a coffeehouse on the college grounds of Doane College named The Orange Cup. This arrangement will also serve as a formal sketch for the first five year's of operation. The financial forecasts show that this asset has significant pledge for the future.
The Orange Cup will provide for the Doane College Community a comfortable atmosphere while serve quality coffee at a reasonably priced with extraordinary service. An ample variety of coffee products including, gourmet coffees, latte, cappuccino, espresso, and iced coffee, will be offered at The Orange Cup. In addition, The Orange Cup will recommend juice, pop, and bottled water, hot cocoa, hot cider, and tea.

The marking plan for The Orange Cup is to attract students and staff to the coffeehouse to continue in a relaxed atmosphere, or for those customers with excited schedules, the expediency of our products.

Tuesday, August 28, 2007

Java Coffee

Java coffee is a coffee bent on the island of Java. In the USA, the term "Java" independently is slang for coffee generally. The Indonesian phrase Kopi Jawa refers not only to the origin of the coffee, but is used to distinguish the black, very sweet coffee, strong with powdered grains in the drink, from other forms of the drink.The Dutch began farming of coffee trees on Java (part of the Dutch East Indies) in the 17th century and it has been export internationally since. The coffee farming systems found on Java have changed significantly over time.

A rust disease in the late 1880s killed off much of the plantation stocks in Sukabumi, before distribution to Central Java and parts of East Java. The Dutch respond by replacing the Arabica firstly with Liberica (a tough, but somewhat unpleasant coffee) and later with Robusta. Today Java's old royally era plantations provide just a portion of the coffee grown on the island. Logo of Java programming language is a coffee cup.

Tuesday, August 21, 2007


Cucumbers are usually harvested while still green. They can be eaten unrefined or cooked, or pickled. Although a smaller amount nutritious than most fruit, the fresh cucumber seeds are still a source of vitamin K, vitamin C, and potassium, also providing nutritional fiber, vitamin A, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, thiamin, folate, and manganese. Cucumbers are used in the attractive food art, graded manger.

Cucumbers can be pickled for taste and longer shelf life. As compare to eating cucumbers, pickling cucumbers tend to be shorter, thicker, less regularly-shaped, and have rough skin with tiny white- or black-dotted spines. They are not at all waxed. Color can be different from creamy yellow to pale or dark green. Pickling cucumbers are sometimes sold fresh as "Kirby" or "Liberty" cucumbers. The pickling practice removes or degrades a large amount of the nutrient content, particularly that of vitamin C. Pickled cucumbers are waterlogged in vinegar or brine or a combination, often along with a mixture of spices.

• English cucumbers can cultivate as long as 2 feet. They are nearly seedless and are sometimes marketed as "Burp less."
• Japanese cucumbers (kyūri) are mild, deep green, slenderand have a bumpy, ridged skin. They can be used for slicing, pickling, salads, etc., and are available year-round.
• Mediterranean cucumbers are smooth-skinned, small and mild. Like the English and Mediterranean cucumbers are nearly seedless.

Tuesday, August 14, 2007


Java (Javanese, Indonesian, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an land mass of Indonesia and the place of its capital city, Jakarta. Once the centre of controlling Hindu kingdoms and the heart of the colonial Dutch East Indies, Java now plays a governing role in the money-making and supporting life of Indonesia. With a population of 124 million, it is the most heavily populated island in the world; it is also one of the most thickly populated regions on Earth.
Java shaped mostly as the result of volcanic events, Java is the 13th leading island in the world and the fifth major island of Indonesia. A sequence of volcanic mountains forms an east-west spine along the island. It has three main languages, and most populace are bilingual, with Indonesian as their second language. While the popular of Javanese are Muslim (or at least supposedly Muslim), Java has a different mixture of religious beliefs and cultures.

Tuesday, August 07, 2007


In chemistry, a metal is a ingredient that readily loses electrons to form positive ions and has metallic bonds between metal atoms. Metals form ionic bonds with non-metals. They are sometimes described as a web of positive ions surrounded by a cloud of delocalized electrons. The metals are one of the three groups of elements as eminent by their ionization and bonding properties, along with the metalloids and nonmetals. On the periodic table, a diagonal line drawn from boron separates the metals from the nonmetals. Most elements on this line are metalloids, sometimes called semi-metals; elements to the lower left are metals; elements to the upper right are nonmetals.

Tuesday, July 31, 2007

Light Arrester

In telegraphy and telephony a lightning arrester is to be found where wires enter a structure, preventing harm to electronic instruments within and ensuring the protection of individuals near them. Lightning arresters, also called rush protector, are devices which are linked between each electrical conductor in a power and transportation systems and the earth. These provide a short circuit to the earth that is interrupted by a non-conductor over which lightning jumps. Its function is to limit the rise in voltage when a connections or power line is struck by lightning.

The non-conducting substance may consist of a semi-conducting material like silicon carbide or zinc oxide, or a spark gap. Primitive varieties of such flash gaps are simply open to the air, but more modern varieties are filled with dry gas and provided with a little amount of radioactive material to support the gas to ionize when the voltage across the gap reaches a particular level. Other designs of lightning arresters use a glow-discharge tube associated between the protected conductor and ground, or any one of a many of voltage-activated solid-state switches called varistors or MOV's. Lightning arresters built for substation use are consisting of a porcelain tube several feet in length and several inches in diameter, impressive devices, fill with disks of zinc oxide. A safety port is full on the side of the device to vent the occasional internal explosion without shocking the porcelain cylinder.

Tuesday, July 24, 2007


Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous continuing plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is citizen to tropical South Asia. It wants temperatures between 20 and 30 deg. C. and a significant amount of annual rainfall to succeed. Plants are gathered yearly for their rhizomes, and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season.It is also often pronounced as tumeric. It’s name vary according to region, in some Asian countries as kunyit.

Its rhizomes are boil for several hours and then dried in hot ovens, after which they are position into a deep orange-yellow powder generally used as a flavor in curries and for dyeing, other South Asian cuisine, and to impart color to mustard condiments. Its active component is curcumin and it has an bitter, earthy, peppery flavor.Sangli, a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra, is the largest and most important trade centre for turmeric in Asia or maybe in the entire world.

Tuesday, July 17, 2007

Religious views of love

Whether religious love can be uttered in related terms to interpersonal love is an issue for philosophical debate. Religious 'love' may be considered a euphemistic term, more intimately describing feelings of esteem or acquiescence. Most religions apply the word love to utter the devotion the admirer has to their deity, who may be a living guru or religious educator. This love can be spoken by prayer, service, superior deeds, and personal sacrifice. Commonly, the followers may consider that the God loves the admirers and all of creation. Few traditions support the development of passionate love in the supporter for the deity. The tension flanked by religious love of the other and self-affirmation is determined in part by contrasting equally love and self-affirmation with their impostors. Additional analysis and references about such contrasts are summarized by Roderick Hindery in relative religious contexts and in the framework of love as corroborating the other.

Sunday, July 08, 2007


Marketing is one of the most significant functions in business. It is the regulation required to understand customers' needs and the benefits they seek. Academia does not have one commonly agreed upon description. Even after a better part of a century the dispute continues. In a nutshell it consists of the social and managerial processes by which goods or services and value are exchanged in order to fulfill the needs and wants of individuals or groups. Although many people appear to think that "marketing" and "advertising" are synonymous, they are not. Advertising is simply one of the lots of processes that together constitute marketing.

Tuesday, July 03, 2007


The term whale is ambiguous: it can refer to all cetaceans, to just the larger ones, or only to members of particular families within the order Cetacea. The last definition is the one followed here. Whales are those cetaceans which are neither dolphins nor porpoises. This can lead to some confusion because Orcas ("Killer Whales") and Pilot whales have "whale" in their name, but they are dolphins for the purpose of classification.

Saturday, June 30, 2007

Before progress the late 15th century, a fixed hand indicated the hour by pointing to revolving numbers. Minute hands only came into use in the late 17th century after the creation of the pendulum allowable for amplified precision in time telling. Until the last quarter of the 17th century hour markings were imprinted into metal faces and the recesses filled with black wax. Subsequently, higher contrast and enhanced readability was achieved with white enamel plaques painted with black numbers. Initially, the numbers were printed on small, individual plaques mounted on a brass substructure. This was not a stylistic decision; rather enamel production technology had not yet achieved the ability to create large pieces of enamel. The "13 piece face" was an early attempt to create an entirely white enamel face. As the name suggests, it was composed of 13 enamel plaques: 12 numbered wedges fitted around a circle. The first single portion enamel faces, not unlike those in production today, began to appear c. 1735.

Tuesday, June 26, 2007


A sandwich is a food item typically consisting of two pieces of leavened bread between which are laid one or more layers of meat, vegetable, cheese or jam, together with optional or traditionally provided condiments, sauces, and other accompaniments. The bread can be used as is, lightly buttered, or covered in a flavored oil to enhance flavor and texture. It is named after the 4th Earl of Sandwich.

Sandwiches are commonly carried to work or school in lunchboxes or brown paper bags to be eaten as the midday meal, taken on picnics, hiking trips, or other outings. In some parts of the world, they are also served in many restaurants as entrées, and are sometimes eaten at home, either as a quick meal or as part of a larger meal. When eaten as part of a full meal sandwiches are traditionally accompanied with such side dishes as a serving of soup (soup-and-sandwich), a salad (salad-and-sandwich), french fries/chips, potato chips/crisps and a pickle or coleslaw. A new trend appearing is making sandwiches into wraps, in which a tortilla is substituted for the bread. According to a recent court ruling in the United States, a sandwich must have two slices of bread and not one tortilla

Friday, June 22, 2007


In computing, a JAR file (or Java ARchive) file used to distribute a set of Java classes. It is used to store compiled Java classes and linked metadata that can constitute a program.

* WAR (file format) (Web Application aRchive) files are also Java archives which store XML files, java classes, Java Server Pages and other objects for Web Applications.
* EAR (file format) (Enterprise ARchive) files are also Java archives which store XML files, java classes and other objects for Enterprise Applications.
* RAR (file format) (Resource Adapter aRchive) files are also Java archives which store XML files, java classes and other objects for J2EE Connector Architecture (JCA) applications.

JAR files can be created and extracted using the "jar" command that comes with the JDK. It can be done using zip tools, but as WinZip has a habit of renaming all-uppercase directories and files in lower case, this can raise support calls with whoever shaped the JAR or the tool authors themselves. WinRAR, on the other hand, retains the original case of filenames.

A JAR file has a manifest file located in the path META-INF/MANIFEST.MF. The entries in the manifest file determine how the JAR file will be used. JAR files which are intended to be executed as standalone programs will have one of their classes specified as the "main" class. The manifest file would have an entry such as
Main-Class: myPrograms.MyClass

Such JAR files are typically started with a command similar to

java -jar foo.jar

These files can also include a Classpath entry, which identifies other JAR files to be loaded with the JAR. This entry consists of a list of absolute or relative paths to other JAR files. Although intended to simplify JAR use, in practice, it turns out to be notoriously brittle as it depends on all the relevant JARs being in the exact locations specified when the entry-point JAR was built. To change versions or locations of libraries, a new manifest is needed.

Monday, June 18, 2007


A canoe is a small narrow boat, classically human-powered, but also commonly sailed. Canoes usually are pointed at both bow and stern and are normally open on top, but can be covered.
In its human-powered form, the canoe is propelled by the use of paddles, with the number of paddlers depending on the size of the canoe. Paddlers face in the direction of travel, either seated on supports in the hull, or kneeling directly upon the hull. In this way paddling a canoe can be contrasted with rowing, where the rowers face away from the direction of travel. Paddles may be single-bladed or double-bladed.
Sailing canoes are propelled by means of a variety of sailing rigs. Common classes of modern sailing canoes include the 5m² and the International 10m² Sailing canoes. The latter is otherwise known as the International Canoe, and is one of the fastest and oldest competitively sailed boat classes in the western world. The log canoe of the Chesapeake Bay is in the modern sense not a canoe at all, though it evolved through the enlargement of dugout canoes.

Friday, June 15, 2007


Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of Earth's ocean surface caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the sun acting on the oceans. Tides cause changes in the depth of the marine and estuarine water bodies and produce oscillating currents known as tidal streams, making prediction of tides important for coastal navigation. The strip of seashore that is submerged at high tide and exposed at low tide, the intertidal zone, is an important ecological product of ocean tides
The changing tide produced at a given location is the result of the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth coupled with the effects of Earth rotation and the local bathymetry.Sea level measured by coastal tide gauges may also be strongly affected by wind. More generally, tidal phenomena can occur in other systems besides the ocean, whenever a gravitational field that varies in time and space is present

Sunday, June 10, 2007


Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae used for food or feed. They are also known as legumes.
The term Bean at first referred to the seed of the broad bean, but was later broadened to include members of the genus Phaseolus such as the common bean or haricot and the runner bean and the related genus Vigna. The term is now applied in a general way to many other related plants such as soybeans, peas, lentils, kidney beans, vetches and lupins.

Bean can be used as a near synonym of pulse, an edible legume, though the term "pulses" is usually reserved for leguminous crops harvested for their dry grain. Pulses frequently exclude crops mainly used for oil extraction (like soybean and peanut) or those used exclusively for sowing purposes (clover and alfalfa). Leguminous crops harvested green for food, such as snap beans, green peas etc, are classified as vegetable crops.

In English usage 'beans' sometimes also refer to seeds or other organs of non leguminosae which bear a resemblance to the vegetable, for example coffee beans, castor beans and cocoa beans ,and vanilla beans .

Wednesday, June 06, 2007

Freshwater prawn farm

A freshwater prawn farm is an aquaculture business designed to raise and produce freshwater prawn or shrimp1 for human consumption. Freshwater prawn farming shares many characteristics with, and many of the same problems as, marine shrimp farming. Unique problems are introduced by the developmental life cycle of the main species
The global annual production of freshwater prawns (excluding crayfish and crabs) in 2003 was about 280,000 tons, of which China produced some 180,000 tons, followed by India and Thailand with some 35,000 tons each. Additionally, China produced about 370,000 tons of Chinese river crab

Thursday, May 31, 2007


The mango is a tropical fruit of the mango tree. Mangoes belong to the genus Mangifera which consists of about 30 species of tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The exact origins of the mango are unknown, but most believe that it is native to Southern and Southeast Asia including the Philippines, Indonesia, India, Burma, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Bangladesh owing to the wide range of genetic diversity in the region and fossil records dating back 25 to 30 million years.
Mangos retain a special significance in the culture of South Asia where they have been cultured for millennia. It has been the national symbol of the Philippines. Reference to mangoes as the "food of the gods" can be found in the Hindu Vedas and the leaves are ritually used for floral decorations at Hindu marriages and religious ceremonies.

Sunday, May 27, 2007


Swans are large water birds of the family Anatidae, which also includes geese and ducks. Swans are grouped with the intimately related geese in the subfamily Anserinae where they form the tribe Cygnini. Sometimes, they are considered a distinct subfamily, Cygninae.

Swans typically mate for life, though "divorce" does sometimes occur, mainly following nesting failure. The number of eggs in each clutch is between 3–8.
The word is derived from Old English swan, akin to German Schwan, in turn derived from Indo-European root *swen (to sound, to sing), whence Latin derives sonus (sound). Young swans are known as cygnets, from the Latin word for swan, cygnus. An adult male is a cob, from Middle English cobbe; an adult female is a pen .

Monday, May 21, 2007


Money is any good or token that functions as a medium of exchange that is generally and legally accepted in payment for goods and services and in settlement of debts. Money also serves as a standard of value for measuring the relative worth of different goods and services. Some authors openly require money to be a standard of deferred payment.Money is one of the most central topics studied in economics and forms its most cogent link to finance.

In common usage, money refers more specially to currency, particularly the many circulating currencies with legal tender status conferred by a national state; deposit accounts denominated in such currencies are also considered part of the money supply, although these characteristics are in the past comparatively recent. Money may also serve as a means of rationing access to scarce resources and as a quantitative measure that provides a common standard for the comparison and valuation of quality as well as quantity, such as in the valuation of real estate or artistic works.

The use of money provides an easier option to barter, which is considered in a modern, complex economy to be incompetent because it requires a coincidence of wants between traders, and an agreement that these needs are of equal value, before a transaction can occur. The efficiency gains through the use of money are thought to encourage trade and the division of labour, in turn increasing productivity and wealth.

Wednesday, May 16, 2007


The ARM architecture (Advanced RISC Machine or Acorn RISC Machine) is a 32-bit RISC processor architecture developed by ARM Limited that is widely used in a number of embedded designs. Due to their power saving features, ARM CPUs are dominant in the mobile electronics market, where low power consumption is a critical design goal.

Today, the ARM family accounts for over 75% of all 32-bit embedded CPUs, making it one of the most prolific 32-bit architectures in the world. ARM CPUs are found in all corners of consumer electronics, from portable devices to computer peripherals. Important branches in this family include Marvell's XScale and the Texas Instruments OMAP series.

Sunday, May 13, 2007

The religion of the ancient Tamils directly followed Hinduism.although persisting with its roots of nature worship. The most popular deity was Murugan, who has from a very early date been recognized with Karthikeya, the son of Siva. Muruga might have been a different deity at first stemming from a local deity. According to the noted expert on Tamil culture Kamil V. Zvelebil, "Subrahmanya-Murugan is one of the most complicated and baffling deities for analysis". The worship of Amman or Mariamman, consideration to have been derived from Kotravai, an ancient mother goddess, also was very common. Kannagi, the heroine of the Cilappatikaram, was worshipped as Pathini by many Tamils, particularly in Sri Lanka. There were also many temples and devotees of Thirumaal, Siva, Ganapathi, and the other common Hindu deities.

Tuesday, May 08, 2007

Egyptian chairs

The chair is of extreme antiquity, although for many centuries and certainly for thousands of years it was an article of state and dignity rather than an article of ordinary use. “The chair” is still extensively used as the emblem of authority in the House of Commons and in public meetings. It was not, in fact, until the 16th century that it became common anywhere. The chest, the bench and the stool were awaiting then the ordinary seats of everyday life, and the number of chairs which have survived from an earlier date is exceedingly limited; most of such examples are of ecclesiastical or seigneurial origin. Our knowledge of the chairs of remote antiquity is derived almost entirely from monuments, sculpture and paintings. A few definite examples exist in the British Museum, in the Egyptian museum at Cairo, and elsewhere.
Egyptian chairs
In ancient Egypt chairs appear to have been of great richness and splendour. Fashioned of ebony and- ivory, or of carved and gilded wood, they were enclosed with costly materials and supported upon representations of the legs of beasts or the figures of captives. An arm-chair in fine preservation found in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings is astonishingly similar, even in small details, to that "Empire" style which followed Napoleon’s campaign in Egypt. The first monuments of Nineveh represent a chair without a back but with attractively carved legs ending in lions’ claws or bulls’ hoofs. Others are supported by figures in the nature of caryatides or by animals.

Friday, May 04, 2007

Columbia River, Revelstoke, BCColumbia Lake forms the Columbia's headwaters in the Canadian Rockies of southern British Columbia. The river then flows through Windermere Lake and the town of Invermere, then northwest to Golden and into Kinbasket Lake. The river then turns south all the way through Revelstoke Lake and the Arrow Lakes to the BC–Washington border.The river then flows throughout the east-central portion of Washington State. The last 300 miles of the Columbia form the Washington-Oregon border line. The river goes into the Pacific Ocean at Ilwaco, Washington and Astoria, Oregon.For its first 200 miles the Columbia flows northwest; it then bends to the south, crossing from Canada into the United States, where the river meets the Clark Fork. The Clark Fork River begins near Butte, Montana and flows through western Montana before entering Pend Oreille Lake. Water demanding from the lake forms the Pend Oreille River, which flows across the Idaho panhandle to Washington's
northeastern curve where it meets the northern Canadian fork.Columbia River Gorge, Oregon or South SideThe River then runs southsouthwest through the Columbia Plateau, changing to a southeasterly direction near the Columbia Basin, where the magnificent Gorge at George is situated. The Gorge Amphitheater, which looks out over the gorge, is a spectacular 40,000 person concert venue.

Monday, April 30, 2007


Wood is the xylem tissue of woody plants, particularly trees but also shrubs. Wood from the latter is only formed in small sizes, reducing the diversity of uses. Wood is a hygroscopic, cellular and anisotropic material. Dry wood is composed of fibers of cellulose (40%–50%) and hemicellulose (20%–30%) held together by lignin (25%–30%).
Artists can use wood to create delicate sculptures.Wood has been used by man for millenia for many purposes, being many things to many people. One of its primary uses is as fuel. It may also be used as a material, for making artworks, boats, buildings, furniture, ships, tools, weapons, etc. Wood has been an important construction material since humans began building shelters, and remains in plentiful use today. Construction wood is usually known as timber in International English, and lumber in American English. Wood may be broken down and be made into chipboard, engineered wood, hardboard, medium-density fibreboard, oriented strand board, paper or used to make other synthetic substances.

Tuesday, April 24, 2007

White oak

The White oak is one of the most wonderful of oaks. Normally not a tall tree, typically 30m tall at maturity, it nonetheless becomes quite massive and has been known to live over five hundred years. Some very large specimens can be found, the tallest recognized being 44m tall. This species lends its name to one of the principal groups of oaks, the white oaks, Quercus subgenus Quercus section Quercus; see the list of Quercus species for the other groups.

Its wood is the best and most precious of the white oaks, although wood of most of the other white oaks may be marketed with it.
The White oak is fairly tolerant of a variety of habitats, and may be found on ridges, in valleys, and in between, and in dry and moist habitats, and in moderately acid and alkaline soils. The leaves are whole and variously lobed. Sometimes the lobes are shallow, extending less than half-way to the midrib, but sometimes they are intensely lobed, with the lobes somewhat branching. The bark is a light ash-gray and somewhat peeling, variously from the top, bottom and/or sides.

White oak foliageThe acorns are long and thin relation to most oaks, and are a valuable wildlife food. Acorns of White oak were used by Native Americans as a food; they are much less bitter than the acorns of red oaks. They also are a favorite food of turkeys, wood ducks, pheasants, grackles, jays, nuthatches, thrushes, woodpeckers, rabbits, squirrels and deer.The White oak makes an exceptional shade tree, with an extremely wide spread and almost never dropping limbs. However, it does not tolerate urban conditions well, although it may thrive in residential neighborhoods.

Wednesday, April 18, 2007


Lightning is an influential natural electrostatic release produced during a thunderstorm. Lightning's abrupt electric release is accompanied by the emission of visible light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation. The electric current passing through the release channels quickly heats and expands the air into plasma, producing acoustic shock waves in the atmosphere.

Early lightning investigate
During early investigations into electricity via Leyden jars and other instruments, a number of people planned that small scale sparks shared some similarity with lightning.

Benjamin Franklin, who also imaginary the lightning rod, endeavored to test this theory by using a spire which was being erected in Philadelphia. Whilst he was waiting for the spire completion some others conducted at Marly in France, what became to be known as the Philadelphia experiments that Franklin had optional in his book?

Franklin typically gets the credit for being the first to perform this research. The Franklin myth goes like this:

Whilst coming up for completion of the spire, he got the idea of using a flying object, such as a kite in its place. During the next shower, in June 1752, he raised a kite, accompanied by his son as an assistant. On his end of the string he emotionally involved a key and tied it to a post with a silk thread. As time passed Franklin noticed the loose fibers on the string stretching out; he then brought his hand close enough to the key and a flash jumped the gap. The rain which had fallen during the storm had covered with water the line and made it conductive.

However, in his memoirs, Franklin obviously states that he only performed this research after those made in France.

As news of the research and its specifics spread, it was met with attempts at duplication. Experiments involving lightning are always risky and commonly fatal. The most well known death during the rash of Franklin-imitators was Professor George Richman, of Saint Petersburg, Russia. He had shaped a setup similar to Franklin's, and was attending a meeting of the Academy of Sciences, when he heard thunder. He ran home with his engraver to capture the event for posterity. While the research was underway, a large ball lightning showed up, collided with Richman's head, and killed him, leaving a red spot. His shoes were blown open, parts of his clothes singed, the engraver knocked out, the doorframe of the room was split, and the door itself ragged off its hinges.

Tuesday, April 10, 2007

Mainframe computer

Mainframes are large and "expensive" computers used mainly by government institutions and large companies for mission critical applications, characteristically bulk data processing such as censuses, industry/consumer statistics, ERP, and financial transaction processing.
The term originated through the early 1970s with the introduction of smaller, less complex computers such as the DEC PDP-8 and PDP-11 series, which became known as minicomputers or just minis. The industry/users then coined the term "mainframe" to describe larger, earlier types (previously known simply as "computers").
Modern mainframe computers contain abilities not so much defined by their performance capabilities as by their high-quality internal engineering and resulting proven reliability, expensive but high-quality technical support, top-notch security, and strict backward compatibility for older software. These machines can and do run successfully for years with no interruption, with repairs taking place whilst they continue to run. Mainframe vendors offer such services as off-site redundancy — if a machine does break down, the vendor offers the option to run customers' applications on their own machines (often without users even noticing the change) whilst repairs go on.

Friday, April 06, 2007

Recording studio

A recording studio is a ability for sound recording.Recording studios normally consist of at least two rooms: the studio itself, where the sound for the recording is created, and the control room, where the sound from the studio is recorded and manipulated. Recording studios are carefully designed so that they have good acoustics and that there is good isolation between the rooms.
Equipment found in a recording studio usually includes:Reference monitors, which are loudspeakers with a flat frequency response And may also include:
Digital Audio Workstation
Music workstation
Outboard Effects, such as compressors, reverbs, or equalizers

Monday, April 02, 2007


Banksia is a genus of around 80 species in the plant family Proteaceae. They are native to Australia, happening in all but the most arid areas. Easily recognised by their characteristic flower spikes and fruiting "cones", Banksia are a well-known Australian wildflower and a popular garden plant. They grow in forms changeable from prostrate woody shrubs to trees up to 25 metres tall. They are generally known as Banksias or Australian Honeysuckle Trees.
Banksias grow as trees or woody shrubs. The largest trees, the Coast Banksia, B. integrifolia, and the River Banksia, B. seminuda, often grow over 15 metres tall, and may be up to 25 metres tall. Banksia species that grow as shrubs are typically erect, but there are several species that are prostrate, with branches that grow on or below the soil.

Friday, March 30, 2007

Amazon Rainforest

From the east of the Andes, the Amazon Rainforest begins. It is the biggest rainforest in the world and is of great ecological significance, as its biomass is capable of absorbing enormous amounts of carbon dioxide. Conservation of the Amazon Rainforest has been a main issue in recent years.
The rainforest is supported by the extremely wet climate of the Amazon basin. The Amazon, and its hundreds of tributaries, flow gradually across the landscape, with an enormously shallow gradient sending them towards the sea: Manaus, 1,600 km (1,000 mi) from the Atlantic, is only 44 m (144 ft) above sea level.
The biodiversity within the rainforest is extraordinary: the region is home to at least 2.5 million insect species, tens of thousands of plants, and some 2,000 birds and mammals. One fifth of all the world's species of birds can be found in the Amazon rainforest.
The diversity of plant species in the Amazon basin is the highest on Earth. Some experts estimate that one square kilometre may contain over 75,000 types of trees and 150,000 species of higher plants. One square kilometre of Amazon rainforest can contain about 90,000 tons of living plants.

Monday, March 26, 2007

Prism (optics)

In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element by means of flat, polished surfaces that refract light. The exact angles between the surfaces depend on the application. The traditional geometrical shape is that of a triangular prism with a triangular base and rectangular sides, and in colloquial use "prism" typically refers to this type. Some types of optical prisms are not in fact in the shape of geometric prisms. Prisms are characteristically made out of glass, but can be made from any material that is transparent to the wavelengths for which they are designed.
A prism can be used to break light up into its constituent spectral colors (the colors of the rainbow). They can also be used to reflect light, or to split light into components with different polarizations.

Wednesday, March 21, 2007


A camera is a device used to take pictures (usually photographs), also singly or in sequence, with or without sound, such as with video cameras. The name is derived from camera obscura, Latin for "dark chamber", an early mechanism for projecting images in which an entire room functioned much as the internal workings of a modern photographic camera, except there was no way at this time to record the image short of physically tracing it. Cameras may work with the visual spectrum or other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Friday, March 16, 2007

Ice travel

Ice can also be an obstacle; for harbors near the poles, being ice-free is an significant advantage, ideally all-year round. Examples are Murmansk (Russia), Petsamo (Russia, formerly Finland) and Vardø (Norway). Harbors that are not ice-free are opened up using icebreakers.
Ice forming on roads is a unsafe winter hazard. Black ice is very difficult to see because it lacks the predictable glossy surface. Whenever there is freezing rain or snow that occurs at a temperature near the melting point, it is common for ice to build up on the windows of vehicles. Driving safely requires the removal of the ice build-up. Ice scrapers are tools designed to break the ice free and clear the windows, while removing the ice can be a long and labor-intensive process.
Far enough below the freezing point, a thin layer of ice crystals can form on the inside surface of windows. This frequently happens when a vehicle has been left alone after being driven for a while, but can happen while driving if the outside temperature is low enough. Moisture from the driver's breath is the source of water for the crystals. It is troublesome to take away this form of ice, so people often open their windows somewhat when the vehicle is parked in order to let the moisture dissipate, and it is now common for cars to have rear-window defrosters to combat the problem. A similar problem can happen in homes, which is one reason why many colder regions require double-pane windows for insulation.
When the outdoor temperature stays below freezing for comprehensive periods, very thick layers of ice can form on lakes and other bodies of water (although places with flowing water require much colder temperatures). The ice can become thick enough to drive onto with automobiles and trucks. Doing this safely requires a thickness of at least 30 centimeters (one foot).

Sunday, March 11, 2007


Cheese is a solid food prepared from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. Cheese is made by curdling milk using a mixture of rennet (or rennet substitutes) and acidification. Bacteria acidify the milk and play a role in essential the texture and flavor of most cheeses. Some cheeses also feature molds, either on the outer rind or all through.
There are hundreds of types of cheese produced all over the world. Different styles and flavors of cheese are the result of using milk from various mammals or with different butterfat contents, employing particular species of bacteria and molds, and varying the length of aging and other dealing out treatments. Other factors contain animal diet and the addition of flavoring agents such as herbs, spices, or wood smoke. Whether the milk is pasteurized may also affect the flavor. The yellow to red coloring of many cheeses is a result of adding annatto. Cheeses are eaten both on their own and cooked as part of a variety of dishes; most cheeses melt when heated.
For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding together acids such as vinegar or lemon juice. Most cheeses, however, are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid, followed by the addition of rennet to complete the curdling. Rennet is an enzyme mixture conventionally obtained from the stomach lining of young cattle, but now also laboratory created. Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available; most are formed by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei, but others have been extracted from a variety of species of the Cynara thistle family.

Tuesday, March 06, 2007

The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply The Tower of Pisa (La Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or self-supporting bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa. It is situated behind the Cathedral and it is the third structure in Pisa's Campo dei Miracoli (field of Miracles).
Although planned to stand vertically, the tower began leaning to the southeast soon after the onset of construction in 1173 due to a poorly laid foundation and loose substrate that has permitted the foundation to shift.
The height of the tower is 55.86 m (183.27 ft) from the ground on the lowest side and 56.70 m (186.02 ft) on the highest side. The width of the walls at the base is 4.09 m (13.42 ft) and at the top 2.48 m (8.14 ft). Its weight is estimated at 14,500 tonnes. The tower has 294 steps.
The Tower of Pisa was a work of art, performed in three stages over a period of about 174 years. Construction of the first floor of the white marble campanile began on August 9, 1173, a period of military success and prosperity. This first floor is enclosed by pillars with classical capitals, leaning against blind arches. Today, it is still unscarred from centuries of weather and age.

Thursday, March 01, 2007


A lollipop, or lolly, is a type of confectionery consisting mostly of hardened, flavoured sucrose with corn syrup mounted on a stick and intended for sucking or licking. In many regions of the United States, the term "sucker" is used interchangeably with or instead of "lollipop". In these areas, the term "lollipop" is frequently applied to candy that is disc-shaped, while "sucker" is applied to candy that is spherical. Lollipops come in a variety of flavors from cherry, grape and orange to watermelon and green apple. In Europe, particularly the Nordic countries, Germany and the Netherlands, salmiakki-flavoured lollipops are also available, but these are largely unknown to the USA. With numerous companies producing lollipops, the candy now comes in dozens of flavors.They were first commercially manufactured on a large scale in the 1920s.
Some lollipops contain fillings, such as bubble gum or Tootsie Rolls. Notable brand names include Chupa Chups and DumDums. The origin of the lollipop has yet to be determined. Both Racine, Wisconsin and San Francisco, California, claim that they made the first automatic lollipop maker.

Sunday, February 25, 2007

Patrice Luzi

Patrice Luzi Bernardi is a French goalkeeper just with Liverpool but released by the Anfield club in June 2005. He then signed a contract with Belgian side Mouscron.
Having formerly played for Monaco and Ajaccio, Luzi made his Liverpool debut in January 2004 against Chelsea in a 1-0 win. He made two wonderful saves to deny Chelsea, but was left frustrated when he later was left out from the first team. His chances where limited when Liverpool loaned in Southampton's Paul Jones to cover from Jerzy Dudek and Chris Kirkland. Patrice Luzi has been described as a good shot stopper with good handling and distribution.
The SRBs are the biggest solid-propellant motors ever flown and the first of such large rockets designed for reuse. Each is 149.16 feet long and 12.17 feet in diameter.

Tuesday, February 20, 2007

Mysore Palace

A silhouette of the Mysore Palace illuminated with ninety seven thousand bulbs shining against an inky black night is one of the most enduring images of the city.
A priceless national wealth and the pride of a kingdom, the Mysore Palace is the seat of the famed Wodeyar Maharajas of Mysore.
An free synthesis of architectural styles the palace is one of India’s most dramatic national monuments. Today it is a museum housing treasures from across the world reflecting the rich and colorful history of the previous significant state of Mysore.
The Mysore Palace is open all days of the week, from 10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. The palace is not opened on Sundays, national holidays and state festivals from 7:00 p.m. to 8 p.m. The palace is illuminated between 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. only for the period of the Dasare festival.
If you would like to treat yourself to a private guided tour of the entire palace complex, Mysore Palace Board specialized tour guides can be found at the entrance to the palace. The guides will guide you to the things to see of the Mysore Palace at a nominal fee.

Wednesday, February 14, 2007

Ice cream

Before the growth of modern refrigeration, ice cream was a luxury item kept for special occasions. Making ice cream was quite difficult. Ice was cut commercially from lakes and ponds during the winter and stored in large heaps in holes in the ground or in wood-frame ice houses, insulated by straw. Ice cream was made by hand in a huge bowl enclosed by packed ice and salt. The temperature of the ingredients was reduced by the mix of compressed ice and salt. The salt water was chilled by the ice, and the action of the salt on the ice causes it to (partially) melt, absorbing latent heat bringing the combination below the freezing point of pure water. The wrapped up container can also make better thermal contact with the salty water and ice mixture than it could with ice alone.The hand-cranked churn, which still used ice and salt for cooling, was made-up by an American named Nancy Johnson in 1846, making invention possible on site and avoiding the problem of nonstop chilling between production and consumer. Ice cream became a trendy item for the first time. The world's first business ice cream factory was opened in Baltimore, Maryland in 1851, by Jacob Fussell, a dairy farmer. An unstable demand for his milk led him to mass create ice cream. This allowed the previously expensive invention to be offered in the city at reduced prices.Fussell opened ice cream parlors as far west as Texas. Many were still around well into the twentieth century. Fussell later sold his business to Borden.
The improvement of industrial refrigeration by German engineer Carl von Linde during the 1870s eliminated the need to cut and store natural ice and when the continuous-process freezer was perfected in 1926, allowed commercial mass invention of ice cream and the birth of the modern ice cream industry.The most common method for producing ice cream at home is to use an ice cream maker, in modern times normally an electrical device that churns the ice cream mixture while cooled inside a house freezer, or using ice and salt. A newer method of making home-made ice cream is to add liquid nitrogen to the mixture while moving it using a spoon or spatula.

Tuesday, February 06, 2007


Gold is a extremely sought-after valuable metal that for many centuries has been used as money, a store of value and in ornaments. The metal occurs as nugget or grains in rocks and in alluvial deposits and is one of the coinage metals. It is a soft, glossy, yellow, dense, malleable, and ductile (trivalent and univalent) change metal. Modern manufacturing uses include dentistry and electronics. Gold forms the basis for a financial typical used by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Bank for International resolution (BIS). Its ISO currency code is XAU.
Gold is a tinny element with a trait yellow color, but can also be black or ruby when finely alienated, while colloidal solutions are intensely tinted and often purple. These colors are the effect of gold's plasmon frequency lying in the visible range, which causes red and yellow glow to be reflected, and blue light to be engrossed. Only silver colloids show the same interactions with light, albeit at a shorter occurrence, making silver colloids yellow in color.
Gold is a good conductor of temperature and electricity, and is not precious by air and most reagents. Heat, damp, oxygen, and most corrosive agents have very little chemical effect on gold, making it well-suited for use in coins and jewelry; equally, halogens will chemically alter gold, and aqua regia dissolve it.
Pure gold is too soft for ordinary use and is hard-boiled by alloying with silver, copper, and other metals. Gold and its lots of alloys are most often used in jewelry, coinage and as a typical for monetary exchange in various countries. When promotion it in the form of jewelry, gold is calculated in karats (k), with pure gold being 24k. However, it is more commonly sold in lower capacity of 22k, 18k, and 14k. A lower "k" indicates a higher percent of copper or silver assorted into the alloy, with copper being the more typically used metal between the two. Fourteen karat gold-copper alloy will be almost identical in color to definite bronze alloys, and both may be used to produce polish and added badges. Eighteen karat gold with a high copper content is establish in some traditional jewelry and will have a distinct, though not dominant copper cast, giving an attractively warm color. A comparable karat weight when alloyed with silvery metals will appear less humid in color, and some low karat white metal alloys may be sold as "white gold", silvery in exterior with a slightly yellow cast but far more resistant to decay than silver or sterling silver. Karat weights of twenty and higher is more general in modern jewelry. Because of its high electrical conductivity and confrontation to decay and other desirable combinations of physical and chemical properties, gold also emerged in the late 20th century as an vital industrial metal, particularly as thin plating on electrical card associates and connectors.

Friday, January 26, 2007

Journalism Basics

Journalism is a concrete, professionally oriented major that involves gathering, interpreting, distilling, and other reporting information to the general audiences through a variety of media means. Journalism majors learn about every possible kind of Journalism (including magazine, newspaper, online journalism, photojournalism, broadcast journalism, and public relations).
That's not all, though. In addition to dedicated training in writing, editing, and reporting, Journalism wants a working knowledge of history, culture, and current events. You'll more than likely be required to take up a broad range of courses that runs the range from statistics to the hard sciences to economics to history. There would also be a lot of haughty talk about professional ethics and civic responsibility too - and you'll be tested on it. To top it all off, you'll perhaps work on the university newspaper or radio station, or possibly complete an internship with a magazine or a mass media conglomerate.

Friday, January 12, 2007

Estate law

Estates may also be held jointly as joint tenants with rights of survivorship or as tenants in common. The difference in these two types of joint ownership of an estate in land is basically the inheritability of the estate. In joint tenancy (or in marriage this is sometimes called tenancy of the entirety) the surviving tenant (or tenants) become the sole owner (or owners) of the estate. Nothing passes to the heirs of the deceased tenant. In some jurisdictions the magic words "with right of survivorship" must be used or the tenancy will assumed to be tenants in common. Tenants in common will have a heritable portion of the estate in proportion to their ownership interest which is presumed to be equal amongst tenants unless otherwise stated in the transfer deed. There are other types of estates in land that are used to prevent the alienation of land (also used in the law of trusts). Generally these are called future interests, an example being the rule against perpetuities. See also the Rule in Shelley's Case.
Real property may not only be owned it may be leased in which the possession of the property is given to the tenant for a limited period of time. Such leases are also called estates such as an estate for years, a periodic tenancy or an estate at will.
Real property may also be owned jointly through the device of the condominium or cooperative.